A. Definition Of Reported Speech
Reported speech is refers to using a noun clause to report what someone has said. Reported speech is called indirect speech. Reported Speech consists of Direct and Indirect Speech
B. Direct Speech
Direct Speech is a sentence or a statement which is spoken by the speaker directly. In other words, Direct speech is also called quoted speech that refers to reproducing word exactly as they were originally spoken (Betty: 273) without to change of arrange the words.
Direct Speech conists of two parts (Hariono Rudi and Bryan L.Winkinson: 500), namely:
· Reporting Verb : Kata-kata yang melaporkan
· Reported Words : Kata-kata yang dilaporkan
This is the example of the usage in a sentence: Billy says, “I go to school everyday”.
In the above example, reporting verb is “Billy says” and the Reported Words is “I go to school everyday”.
There are something have to be paid attention in Direct Speech.
1. In direct speech, usually between reported verb and reported word use mark punctuation is comma.
2. Quatation marks (“…”) are used.
3. Reported verb the same with reporting sentence or reported speech.
C. Indirect Speech
Indirect Speech is a sentence which is said for delivering someone’s statement to other person. In other word, Indirect speech is a statement which is reported by the speaker.
If we tell what is said by someone with the same intend, and delivered by different arrangement or words, So the sentence is named “Indirect Speech”.
Look at this example:
D : She says, “I’m very good in English”
I : She says that she’s very good in English.
From both Direct and Indirect Example we can see the differences between them. There are something have to be paid attention in Direct Speech, namely :
1. In indirect speech, between reporting verb and reported word is joined connected by conjunction.
2. In indirect speech, quotation mark not need
There are General rules to change direct speech to indirect speech. First, about the tenses.
Present change to past, past change to past perfect and future change to past future. Second, the pronoun is Changed as the appropriate need.
Based on the reported word, Direct and Indirect speech is divided in three kinds (Hariono Rudi and Bryan L.Winkinson: 502), namely :
3. Command and Request
Generally, the reporting verb uses verb “say and tell” . In indirect speech uses “that” as the reporting word.
D : He said, “I have seen the movie”
I : He said that he had seen the movie
If in direct speech has Simple Present , Future Tense and Present Perfect Tense Reporting Verb. So,in Indirect Sentence, the reported word has no change in tenses.
Look at this examples. There are no changing in the tenses of sentences.
a. Simple Present Tense → Simple Present Tense
D : Eduardo says, “I am ill”
I : Eduardo says that he is ill.
b. Present Continuous Tense → Present Continuous Tense
D : She will say, “I am writing a letter”
I : She will say that she is writing a letter.
c. Future Tense → Future Tense
D : Tracy has said to me, “I will go with me”
I : Tracy has said to me that she will go with me.
d. Future Continuous Tense → Future Continuous Tense
D : He says, “I shall be eating at six to night”
I : He says that he will be eating at six to night.
e. Simple Past Tense → Simple Past Tense
D : Billy says, “I was happy in that day”
I : Billy says that he was happy in that day.
f. Present Perfect Tense → Present Perfect Tense
D : Britney has said, “ I have worked hard this year”
I : Britney has said that he has worked hard this year.
Direct sentence with present tense reporting verb such as “He says that….” Generally uses to: (Surayin:356 )
· Report a progressive conversation (percakapan yang masih berlangsung )
· Read a letter and inform the contain
· Read instruction abd report it
· Report a statement which is often said by many people.
If direct tense has Simple past Tense or Past Perfect Tense Reporting Verb, there will be changing in tenses, adverb of time and place.
a. Simple Present Tense → Simple Past Tense
D : He said, “ My mother is a wise woman”
I : He said that my mother was a wise woman.
b. Present Continuous Tense → Past Continuous Tense
D : Sarah had said, “I am cooking rice”
I : Sarah had said that he was cooking rise.
c. Simple future Tense → Past Future Tense
D : He said, “I will go to school”
I : He said that he would go to school.
d. Future Continuous Tense → Past Continuous Tense
D : She has said, “I shall be studying at that time”
I : she said that she would be studying at that time.
e. Simple Past Tense → Past Perfect Tense
D : Bryan said to me. “I studied English night”
I : Bryan said to me that he had studied English previous night.
f. Present Perfect Tense → Past Perfect Tense
D : Rani has said, “My brother has gone to school”
I : Rani has said that her brother had gone to school.
The change of direct speech to indirect speech will changed verbs, adverb of time and adverb of place (Sulastri: 174)
- The changed adverb of time
The day before
The night before
The week before
The Sunday before
Two days ago
The days before
The following day, the next day
The following month
The following years
The following week
- The changed adverb of place
a. the Question use Auxiliary verb
Generally, the Reporting Verb is “ask” and in Indirect speech between reporting verb and reported words is connected by “if and weather”. The Interrogative sentence have to be changed positive (affirmative) sentence and lost the question mark.
D : Ranita asked Dendy : “ Do we bring our books?”
I : Ranita asked Dendy if they brought their books.
b. The question use question word
In Indirect speech, the question word (What, where, why, when, Who, How) which is used in direct speech have to be changed became the conjunction between reporting verb and reported words.
D : I asked him, “ What is your name?”
I : I asked him what his name was.
D : Naoki asked Khotoko, “How did you arrive this town?”
I : Naoki asked Khotoko how she had arrived this town.
3. Command and Request
Generally reporting verb consist “ask, tell, beg, told, ordered, or commanded” and for indirect speech, the verb is followed by to infinitive. In other words, Between reporting verb and reported word is connected by “to”. Pronoun of the first person and the second person become the third person.(Sulastri: 181)
You-------he, she or they, i
Our--------his, her, their, my
For negative Command(Prohibotion), word Don’t must be changed to “NOT”.
1. George told Him, “Pay attention to what I say”
George told him to pay attention to what I say.
2. Rani: “Don’t disturb me again,friend!”
Rani told her friend not to disturb her again.
A. General Rules
- Present → Past
- Past → Past Perfect
- Future → Past Future
2. Pronoun change as the need
B. Special Rules
a. Reporting verb : said
b. Conjunction : that
a. Reporting verb : asking
b. Interrogative sentence → affirmative sentence
c. Lost the question mark
Auxiliary Verb → if / weather
Question Word → Question word
3. Command/ request
a. Reported Speech : told / ordered/ commanded/ invited/ request
b. Command Form become infinitive verb
c. Negative Command or Prohibition
Don’t → Not
Azar Betty Schrampfer, Understanding and Using English Grammar, Binarupa Aksara, Jakarta, 1990
Hariono Rudi and Bryan L.Winkinson, Essential ABC English Grammar, Lintas Media, 2008
Leaming Sulastri, English Grammar Sistem 24 jam, Surabaya, Giri Utama
Suryin, Perfect English Grammar, CV.Yrama Widya, Bandung, 2004
Thomson A.J and Martinet A.V, A practical English Grammar, London, 1985