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Efectiveness of listening music while studying
Learning is a process to gain motivation in knowledge, skills, habits and behavior. It’s the mastery of knowledge or acquired skills from instructions. Learning pattern is various. There are many students listening music while studying and some of them can not study well if there is music or other sounds.
Study while listening the music will give comfortable condition . Music was admitted can establish cleverness both mental and rational. Music can touched feeling. By listening our favorite music or songs, bad feeling first will be better and more spirit.
Indonesian who lived in traditional era used to listening music by radio. The developed music included dangdut, keroncong, and played traditional music in radio. While listening the music and song from radio, the student or learners studied happily. Most people study and accompany by music, through handphone (mobile phone) , Laptop, computer, I-Pod and the others media.
In fact, There are few people can’t study if there are sounds near them. it’s noisy for them. But, Most people enjoy studying together with accompanying music. Many students in senior,High School, Junior High School and University or college study with music and songs near them.
That’s why, I take this case as my paper. We need to know about the effectiveness of listening to the music while studying. We’ll explain How it can be effective and how can it become not effective.
- Relationship between music and brain?
- how music affects the feeling of comfort while studying?
- The effectiveness of listening the music while studying?
The Purpose of this paper is to gain the information about the effect of music toward studying process for a student so that we can know the effectiveness of music while studying.
d. Limitation of problem
This Problem discusses about the music in studying process. The studying process covers studying discipline . It means not about learning process in class. But other environment, such as at home,or bed room (non-formal situation)
a. Learning (Studying) and its Style (Pattern)
According to Skinner cited by Dimyati and Mudjiono in his book entitled Learning and learning,that quoted by Indra (Juni 2009) that learning is a relationship between stimulus and response that is created through the process behavior. R. Gagne as cited by Slameto in his book Learning and Factor-factors that influence it, gives two definitions of learning, namely:
1. Learning is a process to gain motivation in knowledge, skills, habits, and behavior.
2. Learning is the acquisition of knowledge or skills acquired from instruction.
M. Sutikno Sobry argued, learning is a process of business performed by a person to obtain a new change as the results of his own experiences in interaction with the environment. According Hilgard and Bower in his book Theories of Learning, quoted by Ngalim Purwanto, learn to relate to a person's behavior changes toward something specific situation caused by the experience repeatedly in a situation.
In essence, intelligence occupy such an important place in the world education, but this intelligence is often understood partially by some of the educators. The real opinion explaining that the intelligence of these people differ from one another is already a long time. Two thousand years ago, Plato was discussing about this. Surely every child is born intelligent by bringing the potential and uniqueness of each to enable them to become intelligent.
Every individual is unique. This means that every individual has the difference between the one with the other. The differences are diverse, ranging from physical differences, patterns of thinking, and ways to respond to or learn something nothing new.
Based on the above understanding, it can be synthesized that learning is changes and improving the quality and quantity of a person's behavior various fields that occur due to constant interaction with environment. If in the learning process does not get an increase quality and quantity of ability, can be said that the person experience failure in the learning process.
Based on some definition and understanding above, we can conclude that study or generally called learning is an exchange and the increasing of someone’s behavior quality and quantity in many part that caused of doing repeated interaction with rhe environment. If a studying process can not get the the increasing of ability quality and quantity, it can be said that the learner failed in learning process.
To prevent failures in the process certainly there must be studying style fixed. What is Learning or studying style? According to Drs. Rita and Dr.Kenneth Dunn "learning style is the way people begin to concentrate, absorb, process, and accommodate new and difficult information. LEarning styles each individual is different or something similar at the same time. Style of learning was largely innate. As research conducted since 1979 revealed "that three-fifths of genetic Learning or studying styles; the rest, outside of persistence, can be developed through experience. "
“…3gaya belajar, yaitu gaya belajar visual, auditorial, dan kinestetikal...”.(Widura,2008:23) Based on Windura explained in his book that learning with music included in auditorial style. “Gaya belajar Auditorial umunya menggunakan Indera pendengaran, yitu berupa bunyi,suara,musik atau pembicaraan lisan” (widura,2008:23)
Musical student included in auditorial style. He will feel enjoy and effective study with music. “Pelajar muksikal bernyayi,berguama,memainkan alat musi dan umunya bereaksi terhadap muris, dan belajar diiringi musik” (Nilandari,2007:xxi).
Experts in the field of education seeks to develop theories about the style od studying as a way to find a way to learn to be an easy thing and fun. As we know, learning or study requires concentration. The situation and conditions to concentrate very much related to style one's learning. If someone recognizes her learning style, then he can manage the condition of what, where, when and how to maximize learning You.
Environmental factors that affect the concentration of study are sound, lighting, temperature, and design learning. In learning styles in d lift this paper, is the pattern of learning associated with the music. Music of course related to the sound. Each person have a different reaction to sound. There is like learning while listening to loud music, soft music, or watching TV. There is also a love learning in a crowded place, with friends. But there also can not concentrate when many people around him. Even for a particular person, music or any sound will disturb the concentration of their learning. They choose to study without music or in a place they consider quiet without sound. However, certain people are not bothered whether there is sound or not. They continue to concentrate on learning under any circumstances.
Based on Rohmah said (November 2010) that in the Research about learning style model of Dunn and Dunn have proved that type of person who processed by the left brain is more like environment learn that: quiet, bright lighting, and formally designed. They does not require food snacks, and can learn or work with the conditions best when alone or with the presence of authority figures. Otherwise Most types of people who process with the right brain is more like: noise or music, dim lighting, informal design, snack foods, mobility and interaction with other colleagues at work or while studying or while concentrating.
The voices are able to give effect to make their learning process become more effective for them. Research informed that many adults able to think and remember best by listening music and some research in New Zealand showed that approximately 40% students prefer an environment that broadcast music and voice noise while learning and they can not concentrate if quiet atmosphere. although there are also students who prefer learning in a quiet atmosphere as it has in describing earlier.
So,study together with music is included on the studying stle. Next, we will discuss the linkage between music and brain. So that it be one style in studying.
b. Music and the brain
Limbic system of the human brain contains the tools to process music. System limbic contains the tools that are very important for long-term memory. “Musik dan ingatan secara fisiologis berhubungan di dalam otak” (Meier,2003:175)
Music gives the growth stimulation of the brain functions (functions of memory, learning, language, listening, and speaking as well as analysis, intellect and cognitive function) and stimulate the growth of storage memory.
That is why a high school student found the difficulties to remember Elements Periodic table in chemistry lessons. whereas, these students feel that they has known 150 different lyrics without hard effort. This is the example of relation betweenmusic and memory in the brain. In India, the the priests of Brahma apply the methods of rhythm and music to memorize and remind the contain of veda. It is clear that the music and memory have linkages.
In a published research inform that music lessons have a positive effect on brain development children. This is strengthens argument. This research was originally published by The Chinese University of Hong Kong. The researchers observed 90 children between the ages of 6 and 15 years. Most children are from school string orchestra music, and the rest did not follow the practice music. Other research conducted by the University of Toronto, with involving 144 children aged 6 years who were randomly assigned to follow piano lessons, vocal, or did not follow lessons at all, during one year.
The results is that learning a musical instrument can trigger mathematical abilities and overall IQ. The results show that the children who took music lessons have the better the brain development. While research in McMaster University and the Rotman Research Institute Toronto conclude that music lessons for 4 months enhance brain development. The study was conducted by observing neuronal activity of children aged 4-6 years who followed music lessons for a year.
According to Gunadarma (April 2010), After comparing, concluded that the brains of children who followed the music for a year, more developed. The ability to remember a series of numbers is also more sharply than the group of children who did not follow music lessons. From this case, seen that the music has a role in brain development of children.
c. Effective music for studying
Monty P Satiadarma and Roswiyani explained that classical music is considered capable of producing extraordinary results. "…Para praktisi Accerated Learning di Barat hingga belakangan ini cenderung menekankan penggunaan musik barok klasik…"(Meier,2003:179)
The power of music to affect memory is quite intriguing. Mozart's music and baroque music, with a 60 beats per minute beat pattern, activate the left and right brain. The simultaneous left and right brain action maximizes learning and retention of information. The information being studied activates the left brain while the music activates the right brain. Also, activities which engage both sides of the brain at the same time, such as playing an instrument or singing, causes the brain to be more capable of processing information.
According to The Center for New Discoveries in Learning, learning potential can be increased a minimum of five times by using this 60 beats per minute music. For example, the ancient Greeks sang their dramas because they understood how music could help them remember more easily ). A renowned Bulgarian psychologist, Dr.George Lozanov, designed a way to teach foreign languages in a fraction of the normal learning time. Using his system, students could learn up to one half of the vocabulary and phrases for the whole school term (which amounts to almost 1,000 words or phrases) in one day.
Along with this, the average retention rate of his students was 92%. Dr. Lozanov's system involved using certain classical music pieces from the baroque period which have around a 60 beats per minute pattern. He has proven that foreign languages can be learned with 85-100% efficiency in only thirty days by using these baroque pieces. His students had a recall accuracy rate of almost 100% even after not reviewing the material for four years.
Baroque music and classical music be the right choice for a variety of situations for many listeners. Similarly, Jaz and all other genres of non-Western cultures. All music can be customized as well with material that will be learnt. Slow rhythmic songs create a calm mood. Jaz can create a cheerful atmosphere and spirit. Mars liver Sousa or African drums and rhythmic dance music of South America are able to generate energy.
The selection of music while learning greatly affects the learning process and concentration When wanted t memorize and require a high concentration, fast beat music and its sticky lyrics in memory is an appropriate choise. The Music like this will break the focus and concentration to the listened song. Kind of this music is suitable to the material which is light and easier material. For example, the lesson that is linkage toward count subject. It will be more effectively to accompany the learning process.
Slow music, or music that is singing without lyrics is effective to accompany the memory because it does not make a float to the learners to follow the the lyrics. It is a public secret that listen to the music while studying already often done since ancient times to the present. Music to be a friend for children, students, and collegian in their learning.
d. How effective the music in studying
The effectiveness of learning while listening to music it depends on the type of music. The best type of music is the music that can enhance learning effectiveness, It is various. It depend on the culture and tastes of the audience. Thus music effectiveness value to the understanding of learning becomes more effective.
In the past, people often listen to the radio and it’s still done now. Listen to the radio while learning give private comfort. Not only it, the process of understanding the lessons learned faster because it seems not-load. These are some of the effectiveness of listened the music.
• Provide a sense of comfort and fresh
Learn while listening to music to be effective because the music gives a sense of convenient for they who listen. Learning while listening to music provides a sense of comfort for people who used to do it. Music can touch the feelings. “Musik mempengaruhi perasaan. Dan perasaan mempengaruhi pembelajaran. JEnis musik cenderung mengendurkan sekaligus menggugah otak dan seluruh system saraf.” (Meier,2003:176)
According to Monty P Satiadarma and Roswiyani that quoted by Amrin (2004:141), music cause vibrations. it will stimulate hearing drums and transmitted to the central nervous system (limbic system) in the central brain which is the storehouse of memory, and central gland (hypothalamus) in central nervous system. This will help the listener of music easier in absorbing the lesson
According to Amrin (2004:141) In general, music can help to improve concentration, wins mind form a tranquil atmosphere, calming the mind, forming a tranquil atmosphere, and assist meditation. In terms of learning accompanied by music, classical music was the one who is considered capable of assist meditation. Enjoy the music means the dizziness would be lost.
Pada umumnya ruang belajar yang tenang dan jauh dari kebisinganmerupakan tempat yang idela untuk belajar. Namun jika hal itu dilakukan dalam jangka waktu yang lama dan tanpa peruabahan,munngkin saja kita dihinggapi kejenuhan belajar. Karena itu sebaiknya diciptakan suasana baru d ruang belajar. Umpamanya dengan belajar sambil mendengarkan musik instrumental yang beenuansa tenang dan meruapakn musik kesenangan kita. (Hakim,2020:68)
It means that By music Thoughts will refresh our mind. Study and Learn with music will reduce stress of the tasks that create panic. By doing tasks while listening to music will relieve tension immediately. Music creates tranquility for who listen it when a child study or learn and accompanied by music. According to Amrin (2004:144-145), in his book, said it expects Benefits Listening to music while learning:
1. Carried away into a comfortable feeling
2. Life will be calmer
3. Being a man who deftly, namely easy to remember all those who he wants to memorize because music affects the brain as intelligence described previously.
4. Moving the heart from hard heart to the soft one.
5. Make a heart which was originally to be more patient temperamental
6. Increasing awareness of humanity
• Support and spirit of learning
By listening to music, someone can read with the more zeal. In other words, learn while listening to music can make or create a better spirit of learning. It's one reasons given by some people who had talked with author.
In one article, a mother said that, for the her child whose name is bila ,it seems a quiet atmosphere, quiet and tend to be alone just can not make them concentrate on learning. Weird! Maybe for those who do not accustomed! But for her it is not strange at all, even she always does the same thing since she was in junior school. Mother and child it, they have similarities in terms of learning or to get concentration in
working. We both felt able to concentrate better when there is sound music from tape, vcd player or radio even though that sometimes is not only the sound of music but also chat announcer.(Sabila, June 2009)
working. We both felt able to concentrate better when there is sound music from tape, vcd player or radio even though that sometimes is not only the sound of music but also chat announcer.(Sabila, June 2009)
In addition, there is other example. Based on Mubarak, (Sabtu, 8 Mei 2010) , A child named Fitriyan Dwi Rahayu, 14tahun, SMP Negeri 1 Karanganyar, Kebumen, reaching values UN top junior and that equals the national level. For subjects mathematics, Indonesian language, and natural sciences (IPA), Riyan get a score of 10, only the English language that scored 9, 8.
He did not take private lessons or tutoring in a particular institution. Riyan just always woken up at 04. 00 pm to learn before departed following the UN. Her father, Cipto Raharjo said that Riyan did not have a specific learning hours, depending mood. But every day she would learn, How Riyan learn quite unique. He always learn while listening to music. Music regarded as a trigger when the spirit of learning and also make learning more fun.
This reinforces the fact that learning together with music makes the it more fun and more spirit.
· Make it easier to understand the science of computation, such as Mathematics.
Learning with music was very suitable to accompany students who are learning mathematics or calculate answers to the calculation of exact science them. Listening to music while studying good for some areas. Gordon Shaw (1996) in Newsweek (1996) says the skill in the field mathematics, logic, language, music and emotions can be trained since childhood through music. By doing the research 2 groups: the class divide control and experimental classes through music education so that circuit regulators to strengthen math skills. Music managed to stimulate thinking and a bridge to thinking more complex.
Supported also by Martin Gardiner (1996) in Goleman (1995) of results research that quoted by Anwar (on Aug 5th, in http://raven2007.multiply.com/journal/item/1) says art and music can make students smarter, music can help the brain to focus on other things that I learned. So, there are logical relationship between music and mathematics, because both of them are related to scale up and down, that beats in the music and the numbers in mathematics.
In a recent study showed that the habits of students who prefer listen to music when studying while listening to music is not appropriate, because the background music can affect the brain's ability to perform tasks related to memory, which in turn also will affect the concentration. The study, published in the journal Applied Cognitive Psychology, conducted by asking participants to remember the eight data in sequence. This research was conducted in five different conditions, namely a quiet environment, the preferred music is played, the music is not favored, unstable data (random order) and the data is stable.
As a result, the ability of participants to remember a bad time listening conditions music, good music is liked or disliked, as well as conducted to random the data. Whereas the best memories happened when he was on a quiet environment with a fixed or stable data.
When someone listening to his/her lovely music, with songs that are familiar ears, then his lips spontaneously joined the lyric of the song and sings the lyrics. It make them become unfocused to their lesson or objectives first. This is because the focus someone move to the songs and music that is d surrounding it. It emphasizes that learning with music is effective for science non-memorize lesson.
The study does not indicate bad effect of music to the learning concentration. Only, in this study submitted that when someone wants to memorize seriously, when will examination of the theory should look for a more comfortable atmosphere and in more effective in comparative study with music. In other words, the effectiveness based on the level of difficulties on the studied material. As long as music can help you, why not?
One's learning style is different. For someone who learned samabil hobby listening to music, he was included in the audio learning styles. For learning style This relates to factors influencing. One of them is sound.
Music as a form of voice is part of the learning process in the discussion of this paper, is pembelajarn informal. There are people who can learn better when he d come with music. Conversely, there are do not feel better when learning with music.
Learning together Though music is quite effective if we can choose the kind of music that match the lesson or material which we are studying. For subjects such as mathematics or who are counting, and not memorizing is very suitable to study with music. This will give stimulus Good on the brain.
Learning with music that effective value due to several factors. Music provide comfort for those who listen. The sound effects of music will give peace of mind of someone who studied with music. Listen classical music or Mozart's music for instance, gives coolness liver. In addition were studied while listening to music give the spirit that different. Surely it would be open space to think, so think more menjadi light.
In fact there is to learn while listening to music and some are in part difficult to learn if people who listen to music. Can be conclude learn while listening to music is effective if adjusted with the level of lesson difficulty . whether that lesson is understanding, hapalan, logic, or which relate to mathematics. If a hapalan, it will be less effective learning, listening music. This is because, constrasion will tend to follow the music.
As a result, a belajr was going to sing along, following the lyrics of the song and difficult to memorize. However, music can be included on the sidelines of the time we break to refresh the brain. Conversely, if we learn without a brain for hire memorized, the music became a good friend. For example, for mathematics, logic, language, music and emotions can be trained from childhood through music.
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