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Sabtu, 22 Januari 2011

Article in English Grammar

" English Grammar"
ARTICLE

Article is not include the eight parts of speech, but article is include in adjective. Exactly in Demonstration Adjactive. In English Grammer, article is clasificated in 2 types:
  1. Indefinite Article
  2. Definite Article

2.1 INDIFINITE ARTICLE
Ø  Definition of Indifinite Article
Indifinite article is used for describing noun in general statement or describe it indefinitely. Indefinite Article is consist of “a” and “an’.
 






a/an have same meaning with one. The meaning of “a/an” is depand on the noun which is accompanied by it .
Examples:
   An egg (sebutir telur)
   A women (seorang wanita)

Ø  The Rule of Using “a” and “an”
   A is used before a word beginning with a consonant or a vowel with a consonant sound.
Examples            : - a man
                             - a teacher
                             - a university
An       is used before words beginning with a vowels (a,i,u,e,o) or words beginning    with a mute h or individual letters spoken with a vowel sound:[1]
Examples            :  - an apple
                              - an hour
                           - an L-plate
                           -an  MP
a/an is the same for all genders.
                                   
Ø   The using of  a and an
  1. We can use a/an to talk about any one member of a class. [2]Generally is used for profession, depart, religion, nationallity, clan(family name).
For Example :
         She’s a nurse
          He’s a moslem
          I’m an Indonesian
         She’s a Simanjuntak

  1. They refer to something specifically known to the person you are communicating with. For a note that “a” and “an” are used before nouns that introduce something or someone you have not mentioned before.
Examples         :
          “I saw an elephant this morning”
          “I ate a banan for lunch”

  1. A/an is used in front of singular countable noun
Example:
I Bought a book last night

  1. a/an is used in express certain of quantity
Examples         :
          a lot of
          great many
         A couple
  1. A/an is used with certain numbers in front of hundred, thousand, million, billion, etc

  1. Is used in exclamation before singular, there may countable nouns
Example:
Wooooow…… What a pretty Girl

  1. After Word “as” whose meaning is “sebagai”
Example          :
He’s clever as a student in this school
8.      Before a singular countable noun which is mentioned for the first time and represented no particular person or thing:
            Examples         : a car must be insured[3]

9.      In certain expressions of quantity
A lot of                       a couple
A great many              a dozen (but one dozen is also possible)
A great deal of

10.  Before a half when half follows a whole number:[4]
1 ½ kilos = one and a half kilos or a kilo and a half
But, ½ kg= half a kilo (no a before half), thought a+half+noun is sometimes possible:
A half-holiday             a half-portion              a half-share
With ½ , ¼  etc. a is usual: a third, aquarter etc, but one is also possible.
11.  In expression of price, speed, ratio, etc.:
5p a kilo          four times a day
10p a dozen     sixty kilometers and an hour.

12.  In exclamation,before  singular, countable nouns:
Such a long queue!      What a pretty Girl,   but
Such long queues!       What pretty girls!

13.  A can be placed before Mr/Mrs/Miss+surname:
                                    A  Mr.Smith                A Mrs. Smith              A Miss.Smith
A Mr.Smith means ‘a man called Smith’ and implies that he is a stranger to the
Speaker. Mr.Smith , without a, implies that the speakers knows Mr.Smith or
knows of his existence.

Note    :
A speakers used generic nouns to make generalizations. A generic noun rpresents a whole class of things; it is not a specific, real, concrete thing but rather a symbol of a whole group[5]

Ø  Omission of a/an
1.      Before plural nouns
2.      Before uncountable noun
3.      Before names of meals, expect when these are preceded by an adjective:[6]
Examples         : We have breakfast et eight
                        : We gave us a good breakfast
The article is also used it is a special meal given to celebrate something or in someone’s honour:    I was invited to dinner (at their house, in the ordinary way), but         I was invired to  dinner given to welcome the new ambassador.

2.2 DEFINITE ARTICLE

Definite Article consist of “THE”. THE is an article  which is used to appoint definite noun. The is the same for singular and plural and for all genders.[7]  If  U want to say a noun individually/ definitely, U have to use THE. The is successor form of “This, These, that and Those”[8]

Ø  The Rule of Using “The”
There are two ways to read “The”.

Look at These!!!

The film is THE END

/dhze/                    /dhzi/

These mean that:
¨      The= /dhze/ is followed by a noun which is began by consonant sound
¨      The= /dhzi/ is followed by a noun which is began by vowel sound
¨      “The” be able preceded by singular noun or plural noun.


Ø  The using of “The”?
1.      Before certain nouns when we know there is only one of particular thing. And when the object or group of objects is unique or considered to be unique
Examples         :
The Moon              The sea                        The stars
The Sky                 The equator
2.      We use “The” when We know that listener knows or can work out what particular person/ thing you are talking about.
Examples         :
The chair is broken
3.      When you  have already mentioned to the thing you are talking about.
Examples         :
I’ve seen two children, a boy and a girl. The girl is nine years old and the The boy is ten years old
4.      The is used before certain profer nouns of seas, rivers, group of island, chains of mountains, plural names of countries, desert.
Examples         :
   The Alps
   The Sahara
5.      Before a noun made definite by the additional of a phrase or clause            :
The girl in blue                        The man with the banner
The boy that I met                  The place where I met hi

6.      Before a noun which by reason of locality can represent only one particular thing:
               Ann is the garden (the garden of this house)
               Please pass the wine (The wine on the table)
               Similarly       : the postman(the one who somes to us), the car (our car), the
               newspaper(the one we read)

7.      Before superlative and first, second etc, used as adjectives or pronouns, and only :
The first (week), the best day, the only way



Ommition of The
1.         Before names of places except as shown above, orbefore names of people
2.         Before abstract nouns except when they are used in a particular sense:
My fear death but
The death of the Prime Minister left his party without a leader.
3.         After a noun in the possessive case, or a possessive adjective:
The boy’ uncle = the uncle of the boys
4.         Before names of games:
He Plays Gold.

Ommition of The before “home,church,hospital,prson,school etc. and before work, sea, and town”[9]
Ø  Home
            When hoem is used alone, i.e not preceded or followed by a descriptive word or pharase, the is omitted:
Examples         : He is at the home (false) → He is at home (right)
            But, when home is preceded or followed by a descriptive word or phrase it is treated llike any other noun.
Examples         : They went to theie new home
                          We arrived at the bride’s home
                          For some years this was the home of your queen
Ø  Bed, Church, Court, hospital, prison, school/college/university
The is not used before the nouns listed before places are visited or used for their primary purpose.
Examples         : We go to bed to sleep or as invalids
                          We go church to pray
                          We go court as ligitants
But, when these places are visited or used for other reasons the is necessary:
Exampes          : I went to the church to see the stained glass
                         HE goes to the Prison sometimes to give lectures.
Ø  Work and Office
Work(=place of work) is used without the:
            He’s on his way to work. He is at work
            He isn’t back from work yet.
Note that at work can also means ‘working’; hard at work= working hard:
            He’s hard at work on a new picture.
Office (= place of work) needs the: He is at/in the office
To be in office (without the) means to hold an officials (usually political) position. To be out of office (to be one longer in power)
Ø  Town
The can be omitted when of the subject’s or speaker’s own town:
We go to town sometimes to buy clothes
We were in town last monday


[1] A.J Thomson and A.V Martinet, A practical English Grammar, Oxford University Fress,Hongkong,1996,
   page 15
[2] Michael Swan,Practical English Usage, second Edition, , Oxford University Page 66
[3]  A.J Thomson and A.V Martinet  Op.cit page  15
[4]  Ibid page 16
[5] Betty Schrampfer Azar , Undersatnding and Using English Grammear, Second Edition, Binarupa Aksara, P.O Box 69, Grogol, Jakarta Barat, Indonesia, hal A.20
[6] A.J Thomson and A.V Martinet .Op.cit page 16
[7] A.J Thomson and A.V Martinetl,page 19
[8]The Assensial ABC English Grammer,Drs Budy Hariyanto and Mr.Bryan L.Wilkinston,Lintas Media page
[9] A Practical English Grammer

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